Bracing for Impact Ups Chances of Surviving Plane Crash, Test Crash Finds

 

By NEAL KARLINSKY (@NealKarlinsky)

Oct. 1, 2012

 

前幾天在電視新聞上看到這個報導:

Discovery TV 用了50 萬買部波音727去撞沙漠, 當然是用假人去坐飛機.

去研究一下如果飛機墮毀, 最危險座位, 和什麼是安全操施之類....

研究發現:

1. 當然要全程繫好安全帶先, 我一向都不解安全帶, 只有放鬆少少的.

2. 出事, 立即 雙手抱頭, 彎低腰頸 (如圖), 撞毀模擬得知, 乘客沒這樣做會, 產生脊髓骨損傷。

3. 出事, 砰片, 硬物, 垃圾等等會周圍飛的, 如果沒雙手抱頭, 彎低腰頸, 反而坐得端正的, 好易被擊中而死的.

4. 出事, 不可手抱小孩, 因為沖力大, 媽不夠力量緊抱小孩, 反比小孩飛出, 如物件般撞死別人, 也撞死小孩.

5. 如果飛機是向前沖撞毀的, 一定坐最後排坐位, 生還的機會最高.

6. 無論什麼撞法, 一定是坐在EXIT 位附近最容易逃生, 當然是一發生意外, 愈早離開架機, 就愈好.

不過, 依他們所說, 根據MTI資料, 坐發達國家的飛機如美國, 日本, 愛爾蘭等的定期航班, 撞機的機會是, 1千4百萬分之1, 亦即去美國, 日本, 愛爾蘭的地方的話, 中獎機會不大的.

 

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A test crash of a Boeing 727 in the Sonoran desert to learn more about what actually happens to passengers when a plane goes down found that simply bracing for impact could help save lives.

In one of the most ambitious tests ever undertaken in the name of airline safety, Discovery TV had a Boeing 727 equipped with more than a half a million dollars worth of crash test dummies, 38 specialized cameras and sensors, and a crew of incredibly daring pilots. The pilots, who'd donned parachutes, bailed out of a hatch in the back of the aircraft minutes before the huge jetliner careered into the ground in a horrific crash that tore the plane apart.

Staged last spring as part of the Discovery Channel's "Curiosity Plane Crash," the test crash was the result of four years of planning and consultations with a huge team of experts, all to better understand what happens to passengers when an aircraft goes down.

Cindy Bir, a professor of biomedical engineering at Wayne State University, took charge of the crash test dummies, examining them immediately after the the plane hit the desert to get an idea of what injuries might have been sustained.

" I suspect … one may have a concussion, one may have a broken leg," Bir said as she looked over the dummies.

Bir told ABC News that her data made it clear that bracing for impact -- placing one's head down and putting one's hands over one's head -- could increase the odds of survival.

 

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During the crash, which was a belly flop done nose first, passengers near the front bore the brunt of the impact. Rows one through seven held the "fatal" seats -- seat 7A was catapulted straight out of the plane.

Many of the seat-belted dummies who weren't bent over in the bracing position incurred spinal injuries from jerking forward in their seat belts.

 

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Bir also simulated a woman holding an infant on her lap -- a familiar one-seat money-saving move many parents opt for. After a relatively minor simulated impact, the mother could no longer hold on. Bir cautioned that holding a child on one's lap was not safe.

The test crash also revealed other aspects of plane crashes, such as the tremendous amount of debris that could prove deadly to any passenger sitting upright, and how important it was to be able to get out of the plane fast. Generally, sitting within five rows of an exit gave passengers the best odds.

 

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An MIT study that drew on worldwide safety data from 2000 to 2007 found that the chance of dying on a scheduled flight in developed nations such as the United States, Japan or Ireland was one in 14 million. In other words, a passenger who took a single flight every day could on average go 38,000 years before dying in a plane crash.

Discovery's test findings offers some tips on how to perhaps improve those odds even further.

 

http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/curiosity-plane-crash-reveals-bracing-impact-passengers-survive/story?id=17363685#.UHFrXpjMgi4

Plastic Oceans - 塑料海洋

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Referring to ABC Catalyst on 6 Sept 2012:

Summary:

1. plastic products are disposed off in the sea , we already known it has a serious impact on the ecology of the marine life .

2 . plastic products poison the human food chain.

3. some very interesting figures are show in this documentary :

a) It is estimated that fish in the North Pacific now consume up to 24,000 tonnes of plastic a year (imagine these fish will be consumed by us- humans!!) , however, the plastic itself is already poisonous from the manufacturing process, and when it floats around in the ocean by currents, it does collect a lot of dirt (contaminates), when animals eat it, it will leach out into the blood stream and is incorporated into the tissues.

b) 270 species worldwide are affected by marine debris, half of them are sea-birds.

c) the plastic found in one single sea-birds stomach was equal to 5 to 8% of the bird’s weight which would be equivalent to 3 to 5 kg in a human stomach.

d) 67 kg plastic waste / per people / year is contributing to the 3.5 million pieces of plastic that enter the ocean every day.

e) above 4.3 parts per million of poison is dangerous to a birds, sea-birds on Lord Howe Island have been recorded with between 1000 – 3000 parts per million of poison.

4. 1/3 to 1/2 of the total globale marine debris consists of drinking containers, the drinking container recycling scheme in South Australia does very successfully combat this dominant marine prollution.

摘要:

1. 塑料製品大量的棄置於海中, 我們現已經知道對海洋生態做成嚴重的影響.

2. 塑料製品已經嚴重毒害人類食物鏈.

3. 在這套紀錄片中, 有些很有趣的數字:

a) 根據估計, 在北太平洋的魚產已經每年在吸取了24,000噸塑料 ( 試想這些魚類就是我們每天在消耗的食物 ). 然而, 這些塑料製造品本身在製造過程中已經用了大量的化學物質, 也亦即是本身已經夠毒的了, 於是隨著海流不斷浮游中, 收集了不少附上其中的污染物, 當動物食了, 將會滲入體內血液,並引入到之肌肉組織之中。

b) 有270種生物已經受到海洋垃圾的影響,其中一半是海鳥。

c) 在一隻海鳥的胃部找到全塞滿了塑料的重量, 是其體重之5~8% ,這將相當於3~5公斤在一個人的胃裡。

d) 依統計, 全球每人每年投入了67公斤塑料廢物,  而每天就有350萬件塑料進入海洋。

e) 根據動物學家說, 高於百萬分之4.3的毒素進入海鳥身內就是高危了, 在Lord Howd 島上的海鳥卻已被記錄在體內有百萬分之1000 (即千分之一) 到 3000  (即千分之3) 的毒藥。

4. 1/3 到 1/2的全球總海洋垃圾是由飲用容器. 在南澳洲的飲用器皿回收計劃,是項佔主導地位的計劃, 並非常成功打擊了海洋污染。

 

Let's have a look on the examination of sea-birds on Lord Howe Island :  好了, 讓我們去看看是什麼引起了關注Lord Howe 島上的海鳥:

Most of the bird carcasses found in the Lord Howe forest, have their stomach full of plastic pieces, including doll’s arm:

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Lord Howe Island, a beautiful Island - widely regarded as the most beautiful island in the Pacific — it is the closest island getaway to Sydney, and a part of New South Wales. It’s less than two hours flying from either Sydney or Brisbane off the Australian east coast 

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It's estimated 3.5 million pieces of new plastic enter the world's oceans daily. Carried on global currents they accumulate in huge circulating gyres causing countless injuries to marine life along the way.

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Plastics don't biodegrade but over many years in the sun and elements they break down into smaller and smaller pieces until they're so small they're hard to see.

But the real problem with these harmless looking pieces is they can be ingested by animals right down at the bottom of the food chain. As far down as plankton, and that's where plastics come back to meet their maker.

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They have what I call the invisible toxic effect. It, it's less easy to detect but equally as scary.The plastic itself inherently contains a wide array of chemicals that are used during the manufacturing and processes.

When the plastic is put out into the marine environment and it floats around in the ocean for let's say ten or forty years it really does last forever,, it basically acts like a little magnet or a sponge and it takes all the contaminates that are out there in the ocean environment that are really diluted in the ocean water and it concentrates it up, onto the surface.Plastic itself has up to a thousand times a higher concentration of containments on its surface than the surrounding seawater from which it came.

And when the animal, whether it's a turtle or a seabird takes that into their body those contaminants leach out into the blood stream and is incorporated into the tissues.

The flesh footed shearwater on Lord Howe Island is officially the world's most heavily contaminated seabird just from mercury alone.

So the toxic threshold that's widely regarded around the world for birds is four point three parts per million. Anything above that four point three PPM is considered toxic to the birds.

Well flesh footed shearwaters on Lord Howe Island are between one thousand and three thousand parts per million.

Asides from death, mercury can cause a wide array of effects from neurological damage to infertility. And mercury is just。 one of the many toxic contaminates found in and on plastic debris.

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There is now a huge range of studies that are coming out almost every month that are showing marine species at the absolute base of the food chain are ingesting these plastics and these contaminates. Anything really that comes out of the ocean you cannot certify that as organic any longer.

Its estimated fish in the North Pacific now consume up to twenty-four thousand tonnes of plastic a year. 
As one predator eats another contaminates biomagnify. This means the most vulnerable animal to the effects of toxic plastic contamination is the one at the very top of the food chain, us.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Pacific_Gyre

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8C%97%E5%A4%AA%E5%B9%B3%E6%B4%8B%E7%92%B0%E6%B5%81%E7%B3%BB%E7%B5%B1

Observationally we do not find full plastic bottles or cans or glass bottles in, in South Australia and I would likely attribute that to the, to the container deposit scheme that they have there.The waste that's associated with the beverage industry comprises about a third and some estimates are as high as a half of the marine debris that we find globally. So that's bottles and cans and straws and disposal coffee cups, bring your to go cup with you.

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you can watch this documentary in youtube as flwg:

 

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another videos and information relevant to this topic, that you may interesting in as flwg:

1. One of the Dirtiest Beaches in the World - Hawaii - Message in the Wave

2. Digging into the Great Pacific Garbage Patch

貓發出的咕嚕咕嚕聲 : Cat Purr

aReferring to 7 June 2012 – Catalyst

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摘要:

貓會發出兩種咕嚕咕嚕聲, 而且有著不同的目的:

1.  當貓放鬆, 躺在你大腿上時. –  此時咕嚕咕嚕聲帶愉悅,舒適的.

2. 當貓肚餓,緊急需求食物,想盡辦法要主人起身給他餵食時. - 此時咕嚕咕嚕聲沒有愉悅,並且有點像犀牛的聲音.

而貓這兩種咕嚕咕嚕聲, 經實驗, 主人都會辨別出那種聲音是貓在放鬆, 那種是貓在餓餓.

經過用錄音結果分析, 請看我自畫的圖表如下: 

Summary:

A cat has two difference kind of purrs for two difference purposes:

1. relaxing purr: when the cat is lying on your lap - sounds more pleasant.

2. hungry purring: when the cat urgently wants of food , to find a way to tell the master to get up and feed them - sound not so pleasant and more like a rhino

After recording the sound of the cat purrs, according to the analysis of the results , I did draw a chart as follows:

The figure below are two kinds of cat purring audio analysis diagrams .- dBs ( Noise, in decibels, the volume of the purr ) , Frequency ( frequency) .

 

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上圖是兩種貓咕嚕咕嚕聲頻分析圖. -  dBs ( 聲浪分貝, 即聲量的大小),  Frequency ( 頻率).

1. 貓放鬆時(上圖的黑線), 在錄音聲軌上顯示從大聲到細聲, 愈細聲頻率就愈高(即愈頻密).

2. 貓肚餓時(上圖的紅線), 在錄音聲軌上顯示在大聲時會突然出現一高峰(英文叫 Voice Peak), 這高峯大約可以由三百與六百赫茲之間。而這高赫茲就跟嬰兒的哭泣或遇險呼叫聲的頻率相同. 這就是為什麼會使主人那麼心急如焚般去搶救心愛的愛貓了.

另外, 從貓發出的咕嚕咕嚕聲頻中, 它的超低音頻, 只有大象才會發出這低音頻. 那為什麼一隻這麼細小的動物可以做到?

原來, 貓是可以聲帶獨立抽動. 跟人類不一樣的.

亦即是人類發聲是由空氣經過聲帶(請看下圖, 聲帶vocal folds是氣管中的兩片白色由軟骨組成的帶狀組織.), 和聲帶周圍的肌肉的抽動來震動(vibrate)聲帶, 然而人類這個動作, 是只能同時震動兩邊的聲帶.

而貓, 他竟然可以控制只是一邊抽動, 或是兩邊同時的抽動. 並且當空氣被傳遞過去的聲帶時,貓還可以在不斷purring咕嚕咕嚕. 來減低了purring 的harmonic 和諧.而使得主人感到這種迫切關注的求救的反應.

1. the black color line: is the purring sound of a relaxed cat, a sound track from loud to low, the lower the noise the higher the frequency .

2. the red color line: is the purring sound of a hungry cat, displayed on the recording sound track appeares a peak (called the Voice Peak ) , this peak is about three hundred and six hundred Hz. This high Hertz is the sound of a baby crying, a distress call frequency of the sound , which is why the master is so anxious to rescue the beloved cat.

In addition, the frequency of the purring sound from the cat , it 's ultra-low, apparently only an elephant can make such a low audio sound. Why such a small animal like a cat can do that?

It turnes out that the cat can control the vocal chords independently. Not like humans, they have no independent vocal cord control .

The picture below shows human vocal cords, the vocal folds inside the trachea are shown as two white cartages. The twitching of the muscles around the vocal cords does control the vibration of the chords, but humans can only vibrate both chords simultaneously, whereas cats can contol them independently and thus are able to create such different sounds.

 

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film authentic cat purrs

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1. to film their cats purring in two situations. One when they're relaxed, sitting on a lap,

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2. the other when they want something - food,

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or to get their owner out of bed.

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the original researcher, Dr Karen McComb from the UK

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Time to bring our DIY film unit back from the field and reveal what this is all about.

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That's a relaxed pussy cat.This is the relaxed purr. Alright, it sort of descends down as we get higher in the frequency.

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That one's a hungry pussy cat. This second purr has been termed a 'solicitation purr'. And the UK scientist found it was consistently rated more urgent and far less pleasant. The question is, why is it so?See this right here, this peak? That's sitting around four hundred and seventy, four hundred and eighty hertz. That is the hidden signal inside the solicitation purr.

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normal voice sounds are made by air passing the vocal folds. But a cat is simply too tiny to make a sound this deep. To get this low, it should be the size of an elephant.

But we now know how cats do it and it's really ingenious. Instead of passing air through the vocal folds, the cat can just twitch its vocal folds independently.

But here's where it gets really clever. What the UK researchers discovered is an additional component - and extra voicing, like a cry or a meow, where the air is passed up past the vocal folds whole the cat is still purring.

They call it the voiced peak. Sitting between three-hundred and six-hundred hertz, this voiced peak is the same frequency as a baby's cry. Effectively, inside the solicitation purr is the buried distress call of a human baby.

So it's that hidden voiced peak in the solicitation purr that makes that purr less harmonic. And that's what drives the owner mad and into action

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去片:

 

catalyst s13 ep12 CatsPurrNew from meiwechner on Vimeo.

read more :

http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/3519623.htm

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Cats 'exploit' humans by purring

Cat owners may have suspected as much, but it seems our feline friends have found a way to manipulate us humans.

Researchers at the University of Sussex have discovered that cats use a "soliciting purr" to overpower their owners and garner attention and food.

Unlike regular purring, this sound incorporates a "cry", with a similar frequency to a human baby's.

The team said cats have "tapped into" a human bias - producing a sound that humans find very difficult to ignore.

Dr Karen McComb, the lead author of the study that was published in the journal Current Biology, said the research was inspired by her own cat, Pepo.

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read more :  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8147566.stm

巴勒斯坦人民的大災難 - (上)

 

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Palestinian……….I am Palestinian ......    巴勒斯坦人, 我是巴勒斯坦人.........

I carved it on all the fronts…………………我刻此在所有戰線上...........

it ignites the fire in my soul and pulses through my veins………………….它燃點在我的靈魂內之火燄,脈沖通過我所有的血管

all of my arab identity calls for revenge and freedom……………………..我們所有阿拉伯人都呼喊著復仇和自由.

to a war denouncing oppression and destroying Zionism………………………..戰爭是要譴責被施以鎮壓和摧毀猶太复國主義

raising palestinian flags in the skies 高舉巴勒斯坦的旗幟在天空吧

and repeating my words  並重複我的話

Palestinian…Palestinian….Palestinian.  巴勒斯坦人,  巴勒斯坦人, 巴勒斯坦人............

 

 

一個小女孩, 看她最多是小學一年級!  如果這堂是老師教她背誦愛國詩.......  什麼會如此激烈悲痛........... 真情流露? 

如果你們要譴責小學老師教導她們如此仇恨猶太复國主義(詩詞上是摧毀猶太复國主義而不是猶太人), 不如你們去讀讀真正的歷史(不是猶太人寫的歷史!!!)

 

為什麼?????

 

1. 究竟什麼人做成巴勒斯坦人從1920開始直到現今的一場大酷劫???  是英國人? 美國人? 猶太人?

2. 為什麼猶太人沒自己的土地, 而要去佔領別人的土地?

3. 為什麼猶太人幾千年前就不斷被驅逐和屠殺?  就只是因為猶太人殺了耶穌? 

4. 為什麼法國, 西班牙, 意大利, 葡萄牙, 土耳其, 荷蘭, 阿爾及利亞, 摩洛哥, 伊朗, 蘇聯..等等都要驅逐猶太人?

5. 為什麼希特勒要大屠殺猶太人?

6. 為什麼有那麼多人要反猶太人, 憎恨他們?

7. 為什麼以色列立國後, 出現了5次中東戰爭??? 

8. 為什麼阿拉伯人都要呼喊著復仇???

9. 為什麼同源出, 同一個神, 都可以互相殘殺?

 

我寫以上, 並不想做成種族仇恨!   可是, 我想讀歷史, 就如我們照鏡一樣! 

如果我們沒辦法從以往的歷史吸取教訓,  前人的教導和犧牲都是百費的!

如果我們沒辦法承認自己的過錯, 我們就只會做出更多的錯去掩飾前面所做過的錯! 

也永遠無法得到原諒和原諒自己!  於是整個民族就活在謊言和陰霾裡!!!

 

我們不要恥笑了別族, 而沒看到自己.................!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

待續.........

Cambodia - 高棉/柬埔寨–(下)

另外, 在 John Pilger 的 return to year zero 中,  也講述了赤柬(紅色商棉)統治期間的大屠殺, S-21集中營等, 在這裡不贅述了.  因為紀錄片是在1993年拍的, 而且最珍貴的部份是影片揭露了赤柬在1979年, 越南入侵柬埔寨後, 赤柬勢力撤往西部,並控制泰柬邊境附近地區近十年.

然而當越南入侵柬埔寨後, 向國際社會提供出那麼多赤柬大屠殺的証據,  聯合國卻沒因此而立即取否決這個屠殺人民的政權, 反而仍然讓赤柬擁有議值.  另外, 英國在背後派出軍官訓練赤柬作恐怖襲擊. 美國捐錢支持赤柬聯盟建路等, 就是為了幫助赤柬來對抗他們的老敵人越南.  

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John Pilger 1993年在柬埔寨.

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在1979年, 越南入侵柬埔寨, 中國和美國都於泰柬邊界設置赤柬遊擊戰點, 來對抗他們老敵人越南.

在1982年, 英國更加引進了民主柬埔寨聯合政府  備註1(即 西哈努克的奉辛北克黨FUNCINPEC, 宋雙 Son Sann的 KPNLF,  喬森潘 的赤柬, PDK).  於是赤柬得到西方撐腰, 在柬埔寨土地上對抗越軍 (赤柬仍然可以生存至1997年, 喬森潘和農謝宣布向柬埔寨政府投降,正式結束了紅色高棉的武裝鬥爭。).

 

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在1989, 當越南終於退出柬埔寨, 中國/美國,英國和他們的同盟們, 為了維持民主柬埔寨聯合政府內有的3支勢力得以平衡, 於是在巴黎簽訂了和平條約.

 

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於是, 赤柬屠殺人民的政權竟受到聯合國的保護, 喬森潘竟成了民主柬埔寨聯合政府領導人之一,  受到總統般地位的尊崇.

 

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Lt. Ed Pyne – UN military observer 聯合國軍事觀察員, 他的任務是執行"巴黎和平條約"中, 所有赤柬軍隊必須集合並且繳械. 再重新安置.  可是所有赤柬軍隊都藉詞越南軍隊仍在, 他們不願意合作, 所以至訪問期間, 仍然是沒有一個赤柬軍隊投入和平條約中的重新安置.

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1991 Asia Watch Physicians for Human Right – Land Mines in Cambodia 報告中, 指出了中國和英國在柬埔寨進行軍事訓練, 訓練赤柬埋地雷等等的爆炸恐怖襲擊訓練,

 

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可是, 當時的聯合國在柬埔寨所提供的拆彈/拆地雷的行動都受到基金的限制,   故主要拆地雷的費用都會先用在已有計劃的行動上(例如建路前和建立管治區前等必須作勘探和拆除地雷.)  於是剛回到土地進行農務的人民/在田裡玩耍的小孩等等, 就都無辜受害了. 備註2

 

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人民才剛從大屠殺中走出陰暗, 又陷入另一悲劇, John 問他們仍以為未來會獲得和平嗎?  他們說, 會的! 因為這是他們最想擁有的, 也是最後的一個願望.

 

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美國出錢出力支援赤柬, 大家都擔心了一旦赤柬再次掌大權的時候, 是否有會另一次的大屠殺再現???

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聯合國的撥款救助柬埔寨的基金中, 大部份用在行政人員身上, 這些行政人員都有屋住, 有電力供應和清潔的食水, 可是有多少柬埔寨兒童仍然死於飲用了不淨的食水和沒清理的地雷陣上?  

泰國又從波帕手中買取大量寶石, 從而暗中保護了赤柬, 波帕成了世界富豪大屠夫, 而人民卻愈來愈窮. 備註3:

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最後, John 希望世界組織和輿論向泰國施壓, 不再暗地裡支援赤柬, 另外也要幫助柬埔寨地區快點拆除地雷陣, 並且建路和橋, 提供潔淨的食水等等, 甚至早日將波帕(Pol Pot)成諸於法, 在聯合國法庭上得以公審.  因為愈遲, 他就愈能毀滅証據.

 

http://www.johnpilger.com/videos/cambodia-return-to-year-zero

 

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以上是 John Pilger 於1993年拍的 return to year zero 中.

 

1993年5月, 四百多萬柬埔寨人(約 90%的合格選民)參加了選舉. 可是民主柬埔寨(PDK)亦即紅色高棉,其軍隊從未願意真正解除武裝或被遣散,而且更進行杯葛, 妨礙選舉. 為此UNTAC聯合國在柬埔寨維和行動組織,決定不在所有PDK控制下的地區進行地區選舉,  這些地區總計持有6%的總人口。

由拉那烈親王的奉辛比克黨得到45.5%的最高選票率, 其次是洪森的柬埔寨人民黨和佛教自由民主黨. 於是與他們聯成聯盟, 在國會內擁有120名成員組成的大會代表, 各方著手起草並批准了新憲法,並於9月24日頒布。

在一個君主立憲制的的框架內建立一個多黨制的自由民主,前諾羅敦西哈努克親王,選為國王. 拉那烈親王和洪森分別成為第一和第二首相,在柬埔寨王國政府(RCG)。憲法規定了廣泛的國際公認的人權。

 

1997年在柬埔寨衝突

第二首相洪森於 7月5和6日用暴力政變, 推翻了與他合作的總理拉那烈親王.  在政變中,幾乎所有柬埔寨的反對派報紙 - 特別是那些與拉那烈的奉辛比克黨和反對黨領袖塞繆爾桑蘭西的高棉民族黨(KNP) - 停止出版, 而逃入流亡在鄰國泰國的大約 40名資深記者和編輯.

雖然洪森承諾報紙將恢復無制裁的行動,但在十二月下旬洪森政府一系列對新聞界發出口頭威脅,對當地和外國記者之間仍然感到恐懼, 在不確定性下未能回國.  這對日後洪森的統治下, 柬埔寨新興的新聞自由和民間機構, 成為致命的傷口.

然而這次發動政變,戰鬥發生前後, 都對記者, 攝影師進行殺害. 

12月23日, 洪森的柬埔寨人民黨控制國民政府, 洪森當政, 禁制一切反政府的新聞和一切異見新聞機構.

新聞機構被他掌控, 政局不穩, 實使當地時經濟危機不斷惡化.

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備註4

在另一方面, 柬埔寨司法缺乏獨立性:

1: 1997年3月30日,約 200名反對派政治家桑蘭西的支持者聚集在一個公園在金邊的國民議會譴責缺乏司法獨立和司法腐敗,在一場精心策劃的襲擊,4個手榴彈扔進人群,造成示威者和旁觀者死亡, 當中有兒童和攤販. 而已嫌疑犯(洪森的私人保鏢, 70旅隊 )Huy Piseth, 事後, 竟不斷進升, 現為國防部的副國務卿. Hing Bunheang, 是70旅副指揮官,威脅要殺死那些對此案進行調查的記者,也竟然進升為柬埔寨皇家武裝部隊副軍事指揮官.

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1997年7月5日, 洪森發動政變,摧毀了拉那烈的奉辛比克黨總部。拉那烈被解除第一首相職務併流亡國外。在1998年7月26日的柬埔寨第二次全國大選後,在西哈努克的調解下,11月13日,人民黨與奉辛比克黨達成全面合作協議;25日,拉那烈當選國民議會議長,洪森任命為首相併負責組閣。

 

2003年7月27日舉行選舉, 政府首相洪森的柬埔寨人民黨贏得了多數,但還不足票可以統治政府, 國王敦促其他兩個政黨,桑蘭西黨和奉辛比克黨,接受洪森為總理。在2004年年中. 終由奉辛比克黨和柬埔寨人民黨組成聯合政府。

 

2010年7月康克由是第一個紅色高棉成員犯有戰爭罪和危害人類罪在他作為S21集中營前指揮官。他被判處 35年監禁。

 

在洪森「獨裁者」其統治下,柬埔寨近年的國民經濟、人民生活水平和國際地位等, 比起赤柬時代, 都有不同程度的改善。

 

可是, 看以下兩個可靠的網頁, 我們是知道一下一些柬埔寨現貌:

 

2010 : Freedom of the Press 2010 – Cambodia :

媒體自由仍然受到大量的限制. 憲法是保障言論自由和新聞自由的權利, 可是政府多年來不斷修訂新聞法, 來控制新聞媒體對國家機構的檢察和評擊.  仍然對報導反政見的記者控以誹謗和造謠的牢獄.

警方繼續通過暴力和武力威脅恐嚇記者, CCJ報導,涉嫌在2009年的兩倍多記者在2008年,和5倍多面臨的訴訟。

政府仍然控制著電台和電視台, 這些主要的信息來源, 以提供三分之二人口是文盲的. 獨立廣播電台的運作受制於政府, 政府控制了電視頻率的分配.

由於基礎設施和經濟限制,小於 1%的人口能夠獲得互聯網(2009年統計),然而政府已對這種新技術對社會的影響越來越擔心, 並且計劃如何控制所有本地的互聯網服務。

 

2010 : Diversifying Cambodia’s Economy, Easier Said than Done :

經濟商貿: 柬埔寨的經濟仍然危險地依賴幾個狹窄範圍: 包括稻米為基礎的農業,服裝,旅遊,和建設.

然而, 只重點依賴大米, 農產品加工業卻缺乏發展, 正是剝奪更多附加價值的經濟活動.  國家收益限制在於農民工作的能力。

製衣業,目前佔該國出口的約 75%。可是受到美國和歐盟的經濟低迷, 需求下降, 競爭激烈,價格不斷下降.

旅遊業也受到經濟低迷而嚴重影響, 旅客消費在相當大的下降. 其他許多領域都也處於危險之中,如失業率上升和家庭的匯款減少。

此外,投資,確實存在著在柬埔寨是高度集中在少數幾個地理區域:首都金邊. 世界著名的寺廟城市暹粒粒,西哈努克港口城市,和幾個小地區,泰國和越南的邊界沿線。

要支援經濟快速增長,向年輕人口提供就業機會(每天有700名青年人進入勞動力市場), 以減輕貧困(低於每天2美元的的近70%的人口生活),柬埔寨需要多樣化.

 

 

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好了, 我最終是想提出這幾位在赤柬時代逃亡至澳洲的難民, 他/她們是如何看待現時的正熱的船民問題:

 

r788730_7038663

 

 

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UNG BUN HEANG: I think the refugees should allow to live, if they are genuine refugee they should allow to live in this society. You know look back, you know we were refugee too. We came here, we worked so hard and we contribute everything what we have.

And right now I can - I don't want to say anyone else but my family - I have four kids, beautiful kids, good citizen, and I can guarantee they're going to be a good taxpayer for this country.

 

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PHINY UNG: To survive, to escape atrocity, persecution, human right abuse - that all we know, and the important is to look for freedom, freedom that we lost. We been taken away by force and the respect us human being. So it is very important for the genuine cases and I really see the way that issue been put into politic. It's really sad. It's really hard when become the game of politic because it's a matter of human beings suffering and we should not play over it.

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RAMY VAR: I felt tormented hearing the debate. My heart feel really broken and shattered, because I know that those who are seeking protection are still being in a land, or in a place where they are very much in danger of being extorted, being demanded for ransom.

Someone could dob them into the authority because I went through that, even when I already got inside the refugees' camp. I had to find a protection, I had to find someone to help me to get registered with the United Nation in order to have food ration, to feel legally refugees. And for those people who run away, who escape from their own home country to another country to seek asylum, in order to seek asylum, they're still waiting.

 

事實, 我非常贊同 MR. UNG BUN HEANG 的看法, 一個國家的經濟是由人而來的, 一個公民, 就有一份稅收了. 就算今天你可能先付出供養費維持他們短暫開支, 可是他們以後世世代代都要交稅. 我覺得國家反而大大賺錢!!

我自小就認為, 世界如果沒有分國家是最好的, 就不會為了國土打杖. 地球是屬人類的, 大家攪乾淨一起住, 就最好了.

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備註1

在1980年末和1900年初, 在民主柬埔寨聯合政府CGDK政治聯盟的形成前, 宋雙和西哈努克兩方反對勢力,吸引了來自美國的軍事和財政支持(因為Reagan Doctrine (美國當時總統羅納德裡根的主義)裡根主義是藉這兩個反對勢力,以對付蘇聯和越南在柬埔寨的侵略/控制.

 

備註2:

Cambodian Mine Action Centre:

http://www.cmac.gov.kh/photo_gallery.php

http://www.cmac.gov.kh/page.php?key=progress_summary_report

 

備註3:

1979年2月17日,中國發動了「對越自衛反擊戰」,在越南北部與越軍展開了戰爭。

其後赤柬勢力撤往西部,並控制泰柬邊境附近地區近十年。他們受到泰國軍隊的非正式保護,而資金大多來自走私寶石及木材。由於越軍的進攻,使得赤柬下生活的百姓能有重見天日的機會,因此在越共砲聲的接近同時,柬國百姓為免再度遭受戰火波及,自發的以越南國旗中的五星作為樣板,以竹、紙等材料製成五星懸掛於家門口,以代表歡迎越軍的解放。直到目前仍有多數柬國百姓於特定節日時習慣性的將這種星星放置於門前。

紅色高棉對自己人民犯下的暴行的證據很快在各地發現,越南人將所有證據公之於眾,世界為之震驚,紅色高棉失去了所有國家的支持。為緩解國際壓力,1981年12月8日,柬共宣布「自動解散」。1985年,波帕、農謝宣布退休。但實際上柬共仍然存在,這些「退休」的人物仍然控制着紅色高棉的運作。

1989年9月,越南佔領軍撤出柬埔寨。1992年,在聯合國調解下,柬埔寨衝突各方簽訂和平協定。自2月起,聯合國陸續派出2.2萬工作人員,花費近28億美元幫助柬埔寨實施和平協定。而作為協定簽字方之一的紅色高棉卻拒絕與聯合國合作,宣布抵制大選,使其陷入全面孤立狀態。1994年7月7日,柬埔寨王國國會宣布紅色高棉為非法組織。

在柬埔寨政府的軍事壓力和政治攻勢下,紅色高棉官兵厭戰思鄉,開始逃離。1996年8月,紅色高棉二號人物英沙里率領四千人向政府軍投降,使紅色高棉失去了拜林這個重要的軍事和經濟基地,同時也拉開了紅色高棉全面瓦解的序幕。到1997年5月,紅色高棉已喪失了近80%的作戰部隊。6月,民柬國民軍總司令宋先密謀投誠,波帕得知後派人槍殺宋先夫婦及其8個子女,並用卡車碾壓屍體。波帕隨後被部下抓獲,公審後被判處終身監禁。1998年4月15日,波帕死於心臟病。同年12月25日,喬森潘和農謝在拜林宣布向金邊政府投降。1999年3月6日,塔莫於泰柬邊境附近被柬埔寨軍方擒獲,標誌着紅色高棉政權完全垮台。

 

備註4:

在另一方面, 柬埔寨司法缺乏獨立性:

1: 1997年3月30日,約 200名反對派政治家桑蘭西的支持者聚集在一個公園在金邊的國民議會譴責缺乏司法獨立和司法腐敗,在一場精心策劃的襲擊,4個手榴彈扔進人群,造成示威者和旁觀者死亡, 當中有兒童和攤販. 而已嫌疑犯(洪森的私人保鏢, 70旅隊 )Huy Piseth, 事後, 竟不斷進升, 現為國防部的副國務卿. Hing Bunheang, 是70旅副指揮官,威脅要殺死那些對此案進行調查的記者,也竟然進升為柬埔寨皇家武裝部隊副軍事指揮官.

警察局的黑暗受賄:

2a. 2008年9月4日, Mean Sokchea, 柬埔寨皇家武裝部隊人員, 開槍殺死一名少女, 少女家人收到 US$2,700 作償. 警察騙她家人說是她在被當局追強盜時, 被誤中槍而死.

2b. 1999年12月5日 一位政府高級官員的妻子Khun Sophal 用酸性攻擊Tat Marina, 使她嚴重毀容. 因為懷疑她與其丈夫有染. 此事受到媒體的強烈宣傳,迫使金邊市法院發出逮捕令Sophal控以企圖謀殺,但警方宣稱,他們無法找到她,雖然記者報導說,她住在家裡像往常一樣。

3. 2009年3月20日, Tuot薩隆 - 前桑蘭西黨公社社長. 以綁架和非法拘禁罪來定罪的, 可是政府卻未能出示任何可信的證據. -- 司法系統經常可對洪森的政治對手, 實施判罪.

人權觀察說,柬埔寨司法缺乏獨立性(柬埔寨法庭的政治控制是最主要的原因),會影響它能夠提供公平和公正的司法. 柬埔寨法庭和國際法庭的混合, 正在展開對前紅色高棉領導人的審判, 使人擔心審判將缺乏可信度。

 

Four Corners:

http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/stories/2011/06/27/3251661.htm

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/85pgcoYXzrw/

http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/WdKxzbumKKQ/

 

完.